Asbury, Herbert.

The Gangs of New York. 1928. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1998.ted

Burrows, Edwin G. and Mike Wallace.

Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford UP, 1999.

Chauncey, George.

Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. New York: Basic-Harper, 1994.

Crapsey, Edward.

The Nether Side of New York: Or, the Vice, Crime and Poverty of the Great Metropolis. 1872. Monclair, NJ: Patterson Smith, 1969.

Cullen, Jim.

The Art of Democracy: A Concise History of Popular Culture in the United States. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1996.

Foster, George G.

New York by Gaslight, and Other Urban Sketches. 1856. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1990.

Lightner, J.E. Ed.

Random House Historical Dictionary of Slang. Volume 1, A-G. New York: Random House, 1994.

McNamara, Brooks.

The New York Concert Saloon: The Devil's Own Nights. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2002.

Morris, Lloyd.

Incredible New York. New York: Arno, 1975.

Nicholson, James R.

History of the Order of Elks: 1868-1952. New York: BPOE, 1953.

---. et al. History of the Order of Elks: 1868-1988. Rev. Ed. New York: BPOE, 1992.

Putney, Clifford.

"Service Over Secrecy." Journal of Popular Culture, Summer93, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p179, 12p.

If you would like to be emailed an Adobe Acrobat file (pdf) of Clifford Putney's article, contact our web master, Warren Hedges.

Schmidt, Alvin J.

Fraternal Organizations. Wesport: Greenwood, 1980.

What It Means To Be An Elk

Published by BPOE. Code 5112 - Rev. 8/97

Whitman, Walt.

"The Old Bowery." Prose Works 1892. v2. (591-597). Floyd Stovall, Ed. New York: NYU Press, 1964.

Zellers, Parker

Tony Pastor: Dean of the Vaudeville Stage. Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press, 1971.

Last updated on 5/1/08